Functions of the Brain and Nervous System


About the nervous system of the human being comes into contact with its environment. To perceive, for example eyes, ears, nose, tongue and sensors in the skin, such as temperature and touch sensors, environmental stimuli and transmit them to the central nervous system. Also, information on the state of its own organism, such as e.g. the position of the body or hunger and thirst are registered. This part of the nervous system is referred to as sensory nervous system. This contrasts with the motor nervous system. With it, the organism responds to signals from the environment or from the body itself. So the motor nervous system controls the muscles and allow ourselves to perform acts and to move in the environment. An example: Are we heading towards an obstacle to it is perceived by the eye. The sensory nervous system sends this information to the brain. Here the information is processed and made the decision to avoid the obstacle. The commands to be relayed from the brain via the motor nervous system to the muscles of the legs and other associated muscle groups.

Autonomic Nervous System


Much of what our nervous system performs, we do consciously. We decide on watching or looking away, going away or standing still, talking or listening. The parties engaged part of our nervous system is subject to our voluntary control. but also the nervous system also has tasks that we can not consciously control. Everyone knows the situation: In sports or in stressful situations automatically increases the heartbeat, breathing is faster and you begin to sweat. is responsible for the autonomic nervous system, which is also referred to as an autonomous or involuntary nervous system, because it is not subject to our will. The autonomic nervous system controls the muscles of all the institutions, thus regulates vital body functions such as heart activity, breathing, circulation, metabolism, digestion, excretion, perspiration, body temperature and reproduction. Outside of the brain and spinal cord, it consists of the sympathetic and his opponent, the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system ensures an increase in heart rate and respiratory activity, improves blood circulation in the muscles and promotes sweating. The parasympathetic nervous system, however, the heart beats more slowly, breathing becomes quiet and digestion is promoted. While the sympathetic nervous system dominates in stressful situations, wins the parasympathetic relaxation in phases the upper hand.



The brain is the information center of our body. Here, information from the environment and the condition of the organism may be collected and further processed to reactions. The most highly developed part of the brain is the cerebrum with the cerebral cortex. Here are the processing centers for signals from the eyes (visual cortex), the ears (auditory cortex) and other sensory organs come. Through the visual cortex, for example, we recognize an object as a car, that is, only after it receives the seen meaning. Also information from the body surface to be processed in the cerebral cortex. It is the area of ​​the cerebral cortex, which is responsible for a specific region of the body surface area, the greater, the more important it is for the perception of the environment. So is the “field of perception” of information coming from the hands, much larger than that for the feet. Even the recognition of places and persons in the cerebral cortex. Other areas of the cerebral cortex responsible for language, numeracy and sensations. controls the motor region of the cerebral cortex and coordinated muscle movements. The different regions of the cerebral cortex are over nerve fibers connected to each other and exchange information continuously from.

Other Brain Areas


The other portions of the brain are diencephalon, midbrain, cerebellum and hindbrain. In diencephalic vegetative functions such as body temperature, hunger and thirst, and sexual behavior can be controlled, for example. There is also the pituitary gland. This important hormone gland, which is also called the pituitary gland produces substances (hormones) that are released into the bloodstream and then pass via the bloodstream to their sites of action. The pituitary hormones control, for example the longitudinal growth before puberty, promote the growth of the internal organs and affect the metabolism. They also promote the maturation of the egg cells in the ovaries of women and the development of sperm in men.

The midbrain is the smallest portion of the brain. It controls among others the sleep-wake rhythm and can draw attention to certain sensations. Responsible for the proper functioning of all body movements, the cerebellum. It is also instrumental in maintaining the equilibrium. In case of failure of the cerebellum it therefore comes to tumbling, target unsafe or trembling movements, such as occur with drunkenness. Even fast successive movements can no longer be executed. With the hindbrain the brain adjacent to the spinal cord. Here breathing, circulation and many processes are controlled in the organs. The hindbrain is also responsible for the blink reflex, the lacrimation, the swallowing reflex, saliva production and for sneezing, coughing and vomiting. In addition, there are reflexes in which only the spinal cord is involved. For example, ensures the stretch reflex that we do not fall in case you stumble, but can catch us without much thought.

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